A Brief Study on the Actual Age of the Sanskrit Raamaayana of Sage/Poet Vaalmiki

Thread started by virarajendra on 21st August 2012 07:49 PM



Virarajendra

A Brief Study on the Actual Age of the Sanskrit Raamaayana of Sage/Poet Vaalmiki & the Sanskrit Mahaabhaaratha of Sage/Poet Viyaasa

The Sanskrit Hindu Scripture the "Vayupurana" belonging to the period of Gupta dynasty (A.D.320-550) of North india states the Raamaayana War came to an end in the 24th Treta Yuga. Some Indian Scholars based on this reference computed the Year of this War using the fictitious "System of Yuga-Time Calculations" as found in Ancient Hindu Scriptures of the North India, concluded that this War actully took place more than 17 millions of years ago.

Also from the Astronomical Informations found in the Sanskrit Raamaayana of Sage/Poet Vaalmiki, the Indian Research Scholar Dr P.V.Vartak has concluded that the Raamaayana War came to an end in the year B.C.7292.

Further the modern Historical Scholars of India and the West have given the following dates as the "Vedic Period of North India" based on their own Research Studies:

(1) Dr Romila Thappar - B.C.1500-500
(2) Dr Radha Kumud Mookerjee - Period between B.C.1500-600.
(3) A.L.Basham - period between B.C.1500-700
(4) N.Jayapalan - B.C.2000-600
(5) Burton Stein - Period between B.C.1500-500

The above years of "Vedic period of North India" arrived at by these Scholars could be averaged as from B.C.1500 to B.C.600.

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However we will re-analyse the evidences available to us presently and arrive at the correct "Vedic Period of North India", and then determine the realistic period of the Sanskrit Epic Raamaayana of Sage/Poet Vaalmiki.

In the year B.C.1500 the Indo-Aryans from the north-west migrated to the Sind valley region (the Punjab regions of present Pakistan and India) through Kabul valley, defeating the Inhabitants of the Mohenjodaro & Harappa civilisations of Sind valley along the river Sindu (Indus) which flourished between B.C.2500-1500, and settled along the river Saraswathi of this region running parallel to the river Sindu.

The fact the 'Rig Veda' was composed by them around B.C.1500 'from this region' is confirmed by the references to the river Sindu and many references to the river Saraswathi of this region - being the 'only two main rivers mentioned in the entire Rig Veda' (not the great rivers Gangai or Yamunai or even the Himalayan mountain range). The religious culture that was developed by the Indo-Aryans in this region after their migration was known as the "Vedic Culture". This Vedic Culture gradually spread to the other regions of North and North-East India over a period of time.

During this period the 'Cyrus the great' (B.C.580-529 BC), the first Achaemenid Emperor founded Persia (present Iran) and conquered the Asia Minor and led his armies towards east and further-east and conquered many kingdoms including the Sind valley region (the Punjab regions of present Pakistan and India) around B.C.570. Thus came the end of the 'cradle of the Vedic Culture' of the Saraswathi and Sind valley regions of North-West India.

Also around this period appeared two great Sages in North India namely Lord Mahavira (B.C.599-527) and Lord Buddha (B.C.563-483) spreading their respective religious doctrines namely the Jainism and Buddhism - in North India. The rise of the new waves of religious culture of these two faiths, lead to the gradual decline of Vedic Culture in the Sind region of North-West India from around B.C.600. The Persians (Non-Islamic) of this period were referred to as "Yavanas" in the Sanskrit Ramaayana of Sage Vaalmiki of little later period.

This period of Vedic Culture from B.C.1500-600 was known as the "Vedic Period" of North India in history, and the Sanskrit language that was professed during this period as "Vedic Sanskrit". The literature that developed during this time was known as the "Vedic Literature".

Around B.C.600 the great Grammerian Panini wrote the first Sanskrit Grammer. The Sanskrit language that was in use as from B.C.600 was referred to as the "Classical Sanskrit". No where in any Sanskrit Literature of the Vedic Period the Epic story of Raamaayana has been mentioned. However there are references to Vedas in the Sanskrit Raamaayana of Sage Vaalmiki. Hence it is clear the Ramaayana episode took place 'after' the period of "Vedic Sanskrit" in B.C.600 - during the period of "Classical Sanskrit".

Panini's Sanskrit Grammer was followed by Katiyaayana's commentry to this Grammer around the year B.C.350. The Katiyaayana's commentry was the earliest Sanskrit literature which has made the first reference to the Sanskrit Epic Mahaabhaaratha of Sage/Poet Viyaasa. Further from the Sri Lankan Historical Chronicle the 'Mahavamsa', we note king Vijaya became the first ruler of Sri Lanka of the newly evolved Sinhala (Sihala) race in B,C.483. But we find some references to the Sinhalas in the Sanskrit Mahaabhaaratha. Hence the period of the Sanskrit Epic Mahaabhaaratha of Sage/Poet Viyaasa could be tentatively fixed around B.C.415 being 'after' king Vijaya's coronation in B.C.483 and 'before' the period of Katiyaayana's commentry in B.C.350.

The Sanskrit Epic Mahaabhaaratha of Sage/Poet Viyaasa 'inturn' mentions in one of it's Kaandas (chapter) briefly the story of Raamaayana. Hence the period of the Sanskrit Epic Raamaayana of Sage/Poet Vaalmiki could be tentatively fixed around B.C.550, 'after' the Persian invasion ('Yavanaas' as mentioned in Raamaayana itself) of the Sind valley region in North-West India in B.C.570 being the period of Classical Sanskrit, and 'before' the period of Mahaabhaaratha episode around B.C.415.

In Tamil Nadu down south of India the first known massive "Under Sea Lanslide" (Tsunami) took place in the year B.C.650 and large extent of land known as "Kumarikkandam" (known as 'Lemuria continent' to Western Scholars) with hills and rivers went under sea. It was in this lost Kumarikkandam the first capital city of the Paandiya kings named 'Koodal' also known as 'Then Mathurai' existed where the First Thamil Sangam was instituted under the patronage of the Paandiya kings. It was during the last stages of the First Thamil Sangam just before the Under Sea Landslide in B.C.650, the Tamil Sage/Poet Ahaththiyar lived in the Pothikai hills (in the present Thirunelveli Mawattam) of then Tamil Nadu.

With the begining of the era after B.C.650 the Paandiya kings establised their new (second) capital city at Kapadapuram of then Tamil Nadu along it's eastern coast, being the region on the east of the present Ramanathapuram district (presently submerged under sea). It was in this capital city Kapaadapuram the Paandiya kings established their Second Thamil Sangam, where the Tamil Poet Tholkaappiar composed his Tamil Grammetical work "Tholkaappiam" around it's early period, being after B.C.650.

The Ramaayana episode took place around B.C.550 and the Sage/Poet Vaalmiki has referred to the Pothikai hills as the abode of the Tamil Sage/Poet Agaththiyar of the period after B.C.650, and to the coastal city of Kapaadapuram of Paandiya Nadu of his period around around B.C.550 in his Sanskrit epic Raamayana. The Mahaabhaaratha episode took place around B.C.415, and the Second Thamil Sangam period poem of the Poet Maamoolanaar classified under the Tamil Poetic work named 'Puranaanooru' specifically states in his praise poem on the "Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan", that he was the "great" who provided food to the warriors at the Mahaabhaaratha War in the "present tense", which indicates the Tamil Poet Maamoolanaar of Second Thamil Sangam lived in the period around B.C.415.

Important Notes:

(1) The year the Lord Buddha (B.C.563-483) attained Nibbana (died) has been determined as B.C.483 by Scholars. The Sinhala Historical Chronicle of Sri Lanka states, Prince Vijaya landed in Sri Lanka with his 700 Followers from Bengal of India on the same day Lord Buddha attained Nibbana. Hence the begining of the rule of King Vijaya the forerunner of the Sinhala Race of Sri Lanka could be fixed in the year B.C.483.

(2) Katiyaayana's commentary (Vartikka) on Panini's Sanskrit Grammer written around B.C.350, was followed by Pathanjali's commentary (Mahaabhaashya) on same around B.C.150

(3) It appears the term "Yavanas" was used by the Indians from the end of Vedic Period to mean "the white skinned Westerners who came to India through Kabul Valley". It seems this term was used first to indicate the Persians (Non-Islamic) who invaded North-West India under Cyrus the Great around B.C.570. Thereafter it was used in Ramaayana around the period B.C.550 also to refer to the Persians who were present in the Sind Valley region. The Sanskrit "Manu Smiruthi" of the period around B.C.500 too refers to the Persians (Non-Islamic) as Yavanas. The Mahaabhaaratha of the period B.C.450 too makes reference to the term Yavanaas undoubtedly to the Persians, as after Cyrus's invasion the Sind valley region were under the Persians for nearly 224 years until around B.C.326.

It was in this year the Greek conquerer the 'Alexander the Great' invaded and occupied the Sind valley region. Since then the term "Yavanaas" were used by the Indians to indicate the Greeks - again being the "white skinned Westerners who came to India through Kabul valley". The Greek Settlements after Alexander's invasion of the Sind region of North-West India were also known as 'Yavanna Settlements' in Indian Literature and Inscriptions. The term "Yavanas" in Sanskrit language was referred to as "Yonakas" in Prakrit language and the Emperor Asoka's Edicts too refer to them both ways. With the Alexander's invasion, not only the Greeks but also the Romans too gradually came to India but not as conquerers but essentially as Explorers and Traders as far as the Muth-Tamil Nadu down extreme south of India of that period, namely to the regions of Chera, Chola and Pandiya countries.

The Tamil Literature of the Third Thamil Sangam period of Tamil Nadu too speaks very much about their trade and presence in the Tamil Countries from B.C.100 to around A.D.200. The Tamil Literature too refers to them as Yavanas - "the white skinned Westerners who came to India through Kabul valley". However with the discovery of the favourable wind of the Indian Ocean named "Hippalaus" the Romans started coming to the southern region of India more by way of directly sailings from the port of Hormos to the ports of Western India including the Musiri in Chera Nadu.

Hence the reference to "Yavanaas" in Raamaayana and Mahaabhaaratha doesnot indicate that they both belong to the period between B.C.100 - A.D.200 being the period of Greeks and Romans in the Southern countries of India namely the Chera, Chola and Paandiyar and referred to in the Third Tamil Sangam period Literature of Tamil Nadu (B.C.300-A.D.200).

(4) The History of whole of India has been effectively traced from Historical, Literary and Archaelogical sources only up to the period of B.C.2500 being the beginning of Mohenjadaro and Harappa Dravidian Civilisations (in the Sind & Saraswathi Valley regions prior to Vedic Period from B.C.1500-600) in North-West India, and the Tamil Civilisation (of the first Thamil Sangam period) of the submerged Kumarik Kandam (Lemuria) as early as B.C.1200 tentatively.

(5) Hence concluding the period of Raamaayana Episode on 'Fictious Dating Methods' - of 'Yuga' Calculations - as having occured 17 million years ago, and on 'Very Unreliable Astrological Datings' as having occured in B.C.7292 has to be done away with.


Note: The foregoing will be reviewed frequently corrected where necessary, and added with additional informations with evidence as and when they surface







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