Rajarajaeswarem & Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem-Temples Pt 1

Thread started by virarajendra on 7th September 2008 11:38 PM

Author - Virarajendra
Copyright - Virarajendra

Under re-construction

The great significance of the "Rajarajaeswarem" & "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem" -
Siva Temples of Tamil Nadu, South India - Part 1

(1) Prologue

The "Rajarajaeswarem" Siva temple - of Thanjavur district, the "Thanjai Periya Koyil" (also known as the "Birahatheeswarer Temple" after the Naayakkar occupation of Thanjavur), was built by the Tamil Emperor "Rajaraja Cholan - 1" (A.D.985-1014) - one among the two 'Greatest Rulers' of Tamil Nadu, -$- who conquered 3/5 of the Indian Mainland, northern half of Sri Lanka, and the Maldive Islands, during the period of his rule.

Rajaraja Cholan - 1 also had much political and trade relations with the Hindu-Buddhist Malaysia (the Kadaram, and others), the Buddhist Empire of Sumatra - Indonesia (the Sri Vijaya, and others), and the Southern Sung Empire of China of his period.

(2) Rajaraja Chola's year of accession on the Chola throne

Rajaraja Chola - 1 acended the throne of the Chola kingdom in the year A.D.985 after 20 years rule by Uththama Chola - his father Sunthara Cholan's younger brother.


The Kannada Inscription of the region Balmuri in Mysore District refers to conquests made by the Chola general Panchavan Marayan alias Mummudi Chola-Nagandavaranam. This inscription is dated the 28th year of Rajaraja Chola - 1 being Saka year 934. Hence the year of accession of Rajaraja - 1 on Chola throne = (934-[28-1]) = Saka Year 907. (Refer Epigraphica Carnatica - Vol 3, Sr 140)

This is further confirmed by another Inscription of the region Kallahalli in Mysore District dated 27th year of Rajaraja Chola - 1 being Saka year 933. That is (933-[27-1]) = Saka Year 907. (Refer Epigraphica Carnatica - Vol 10, Ct 118)

It has been determined by the Historians of India that any Saka year + 78 =Christian Year expressed in terms of A.D. Hence Saka year 907 = 907 + 78 =A.D.985. We are aware Saka year 907 covers the period of last 9 months from April A.D.984, and the period of first 3 months up to March A.D.985.

Thus it is confirmed that the Rajaraja Chola - 1 accession on the Chola throne took place between A.D.985 January and A.D.985 March. If we take the mean of this period we could conclude that the year of accession Rajaraja Chola - 1 on the Chola throne was in A.D.985 'accurately', and in the month of mid February 'approximately'.

(3) Rajaraja Chola's war expeditions in the Indian Mainland and near Overseas

Rajaraja Chola - 1 commenced his war expedition in the Indian Mainland, with the capture of Pandiya Nadu of south Tamil Nadu, followed by his capture of Kandalursaalai and Vilignam a seaport city - both in south Kerala in the year A.D.994.

After a lapse of four years he turned his attention to Seetpulinaadu, Paaki Naadu of south Andhara Pradesh and the Vengi Mandalam in north-east Andhra Pradesh. After the capture of these regions he proceeded to the regions Gangapaadi in south Karnataka, Thadigaipaadi in also in south Karnataka, Nulambapaadi in central Karnataka and Tuluva Nadu in the northern tip along the west coast of Karanataka. He captured the regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in one single expedition in the year A.D.998.

He then he turned his attention to Kudamalainaadu in west Kerala, and sent an expedition in his A.D.999. It was in this same expedition he won over the Udagai in the west Tamilnadu bordering Kerala ruled by a Chera prince on-behalf of the Chera ruler in Kudamalainadu.

In the early part of the following year in A.D.1000 he sent an expedition and conquered the Kollam of Kerala. In the second part of this same year a separate expedition was sent to Kalinga of Orrisa state, in the north of earlier conquered region of Vengimandalam. It appears it was in this same expedition he captured Odda of Orissa and Magadha of Bihar, Vanga & Gauda of West Bengal.

In the year A.D.1001 he sent his forces which crossed the seas and captured the northern half of Elamandalam the Sri Lanka.

It appears in between the years A.D.1002 and A.D.1005, Emperor Chulamanivarman of Sri Vijaya Empire in Sumatra, Indonesia who was also the overlord king of Kadarem the Kedah & Perak regions of Malaysia, probably was assisted by a garrison of Chola Forces - stationed already at Kadrem to safeguard the interests of Chola Traders in this region - to suppress a revolt by the native king of Kadarem against their overlord the Chulamanivarman of Sri Vijaya in Sumatra, Indonesia. This possibly made Rajaraja - 1 to claim his victory over Katakas as seen in the "Essaalam Copper Plates".

In the year A.D.1006 he sent an expedition to Irrattaipaadi Elaraiillakkam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra with its capital at Mannaikadakkam the Maleked, along with three other regions being the Konkanar in west Maharashtra, Saurashtra in Gujarat, Malava in north Maharashtra and south-west Madhya Pradesh, and the kings of Kurunaadu {in Haryaana ??}

After a further lapse of seven years in the year A.D.1013 Rajaraja Chola's forces crossed seas again, and captured the Munneer Palanthivu Panneeraayiram the Maldives islands.

The Essalam Copper Plates of Rajendra Chola - 1 states that his father Rajaraja Chola - 1".....By the wealth obtained through his conquests he erected at "Thanjapuri" a very great temple named "Rajarajaesvarem"……..

(4) The General Layout of the Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem Temple

The great temple Rajarajaeswarem as originally built by Rajaraja Chola - 1 comprised of the Karuvarai (garbagriha = sanctum anctorum) with Vimaanam (tower over Karuvarai), Sikaram (Crown-head), and Kalasam (pinnacle), Artha Mandapam - at four levels (intermediate hall between Karuvarai and Maha Mandapam) with connected Maha Mandapam at - three levels (main hall for religious rituals & discourses), the Muha Mandapam at three levels (main front entrance hall to Maha Mandapam) and the Nandi Mandapam. In front of the north entrance to the main temple was the small Chandesvarar shrine. The main temple was surrounded by a large paved courtyard and a Thiruchchuttru Maalikai (surrounding cloister), connected to the two Gopura Vaayil (main gateways with 'ornate towers' i.e. Gopurams).



Above beautiful Pictures are with kind Courtesy of Mr Mohammed Suhaib of Panoramio Web Site

Dr Kudavayil Balasubramaniam's visualisation of the "original construction" of the Rajarajaeswarem temple is given by him as a 'schematic drawing', uploaded by me to the 'Files Section' of the Ponniyin Selvan Website" under following URL:

However my own description of the "General Layout" of the "original construction" is as follows:

(a) Karuvarai with Vimanam, Sikaram and Kalasam

Karuvarai of this temple was built on an Upa-Peedam (platform) measuring 150 ft square and of 8 Ft height. Karuvarai measuring 100 ft square outwardly is going to a height of 54 ft (22 ft + 32 ft) in two levels. Within this Karuvarai was consecrated the presiding deity of this great temple the "God Siva" (God - as Siva) in his 'aru-uruvam' form of Lingham, and was known as "Rajarajaeswaram Udaiyar" and also as "Peruvudaiyar". This is the second biggest Lingam among the Siva Temples both in India and Worldover, having a total height of 9 ft and of 23.5 ft in body circumferance .

Between the inner walls and the outer walls of the Karuvarai there are two Unnaalikai (corridors), one running around the Karuvarai above the 'ground floor level', and the other running around the Karuvarai above this corridor at the 'first floor level'.

From the top level of the top corridor of the Karuvarai, commences the pyramidical shaped Vimanam going to a further height of 113 ft vertically having thirteen levels and ending up in a truncated square basement of 26 ft square at the top.

Unlike the southern, western and northern faces of the Vimanam, the lower part of the eastern face has a large stone panel depicting God Siva, Goddess Parvathi and Gangai depicted as a Mangai within three Thiruvaasikal (ornamented arch - behind the rear head of the God Idols), and Pillaiyaar on their left, and Murugan with Valli and Theivayanai on their right without any Thiruvaasikal - all depicted as residing on the Meru mountain (the Himalayas in the north).

This concept seems to have deeply embedded in the mind of Rajaraja Chola - 1 for long and re-created by him on the Vimanam and known as "Dakshina Meru Vithankar". From the Inscriptions in this temple it is also known that Rajaraja Cholan had presented a bronze statue similer to this panel in a miniature form also named as Dakshina Meru Vithankar to be consecrated within the temple.

On the truncated square basement of the Vimanam was the ornate Sikaram - with a vertical cylindrical stem over which is an Ettumuha Thalam (octagonal plinth). Above this plinth continues another cylindrical stem but flaring up at the top all round, to hold a inverted "Arai-koala Mudi (hemispherical dome) having total height of 28 ft, with a crowning copper Kalasam (pinnacle) of 13 ft covered with "gold plates". Thus the total vertical height of the Upathalam, Karuvarai at two levels, Vimanam, Sikaram and Kalasam totals to height of 216 ft.

However in our normal reference, the term "Vimanam" is loosely used to denote the entire structure over the Sancturm Sanctorium, and it's total height too is indicated loosly as the "height of the Vimanam of this temple, from the (outside) ground floor level" being 216 ft.

(b) Artha Mantapams with connected Maha Mantapams

The Artha Mandapams are in between the Karuvarai and the Maha Mantapam, and have four levels vertically, with three entrance doors at first three levels and a large window at the fourth level all facing towards east.

(1) at the ground floor level

At the ground floor level the relevent door facing towards east opens into the existing Maha Mantapam. There are two Dwarapaalakar (guardian deities) on either side, of the door entrance falling into and within the Maha Mantapam.

The Artha Mantapam at this level also has two other small doorways within and adjacent to each other on the right side, when facing the Karuvarai.

The first doorway leads to the Unaalikai (corridor) rightround the Karuvarai where you find the Chola period paintings on the vertical wall panels right round.

The second doorway has a Padiththalam (stairway) leading to the first floor level of Artha Mantapam and also to the Maha Mantapam of this level (which now remains as an open terrace).

The Artha Mantapam at ground floor level has two further large doorways on the either side with two sets of Padiththalam leading to the outside of the Karuvarai, and the temple as a whole.

(2) at the first floor level

At the first floor level corresponding door facing towards east opens into the open terrace, which undoubtedly was another Maha Mantapam of the same area as the existing ground level Maha Mandapam that was there during the time of Rajaraja Chola - 1, but it appears the structure of this Mantapam has been damaged and got dismantled at a subsequent period, as we could see part of the front two corner walls of same still remaining.

At the first floor level too there are two Dwarapaalakar on either side of the door entrance falling in to and within the Maha Mantapam confirming the existance of this Maha Mantapam.

At this level too on the side of the Karuvarai there is a doorway leading to a second corridor right round the Karuvarai which has the beautifull Natya Karanas depicted carved out on the stone wall panels. It is to be noted that only 83 of the 108 Natya Karnas have been fully sculptured while other not completed for reason unknown.

(3) at the second floor level

At the second floor level the relevent door of Artha Mantapam facing towards east opens into the second level walled Thiranthaveli Thalam (open terrace) over the full area of the ground level Maha Mantapam which undoubtedly existed during Rajaraja's time, but now this floor which also served as the roof of the first level Maha Matapam with columns too have been possibly damaged possibly and was dismantled.

There are two narrow stairways on both sides of the entrance door on the outer walls of th Artha Mandapam within the Mahamandapam going from the first floor level to the second floor level exists even today though the second floor no longer exits.

The existance of this second floor level is confirmed by the fact the existing outer perimeter walls on both sides of this level have slotted holes to lock in position similerly the other consecutive granite wall panels going right round having the locking system.

All the Artha Mandapams at the three levels are remaining even today unlike the second Maha Mantapam and walled "Open Terrace", and are of the same width when viewed from the main entrance (i.e from east).

(4) at the third floor level

Above the third Artha Maandapam is a small "Open Enclosure" but of smaller width unlike the Artha Mandapam at the other levels, but with another doorway in front also facing in the same eastern direction, and two side slotted stone windows, but with no Maha Mandapam or Open Terrace in front of same.

This enclosure terrace is in front of the Dakkshina Meru Vidandakar Stone Panel on the Vimanam. There should have been an approach stairway to this open enclosure terrace area too and possibly the daily religious rituals was also done to the Dakkshina Meru Vidandakar on the Stone Panel on the east face of the Vimanam.

On all the top edge walls of the third Mahamandapam possibly was decorated with equi-spaced Nandi all right round. We even on the short width side walls on the forth level enclosure with final finish has three small Nandis on them. These damaged and dismanled Mahamandapams on the first level and second level would have been with stone windows all around for ventilation as seen in the existing ground floor Mahamantapam.

From the three levels of Arthamandapam there are doorway on the western side too leading in the the Karuvarai of the temple.

At the third level Artha Mandapam which is reached from the second level Arthamandapam by a stairway within second level Mahamandapam.the There appears to be another doorway at this level on the Karuvarai side which is possibly a corridor right round the base of the joint level Karuvarai and the start of the Vimanam over it.

(c) Muha Mantapam

(d) Chandeswarar Shrine

Closer to the northern main entrance stairway leading to the outside from the ground level Artha Mantapam of the big temple, is the seperate small temple shrine to Lord Chandeswarer.

(e) Nanthi Mantapam

There apparently had been a Nanthi Mantapam in front of the Muha Mandapam during the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 as we can still see in the paved flooring opposite Muha Mantapam at places square sections of granite levelled to surronding floor level but having slightly varied colour granite stones.

The original Nanthi within the Mantapam during Rajaraja’s time, is now removed and kept in the Ullaalai (corridor) on the western side of the Thiruchchuttru.

The original granite Nanthi more finely carved that existed during the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 has been removed from it's original location in front of the temple, and placed in the west wing of the Thiruchchuttru-Maaligai at a subseqent period. (while the present Nanthi and the enclosing Mantapam over it were built in it's place during the period of emperor Kulothunga Chola - 1 and king Achuthapa Naayakar who ruled over Thanjavur at differnt periods).

(f) Katthala Velimuttram

Surrounding the main temple structure comprising of 'Karuvarai with Vimanam', Maha Mantapam and Muha Mantapam all in integral, is a vast Katthala Velimuttram (Stonepaved Outeryard) within the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai.

(g) Thiruchchuttru Maalikai

On the order of the emperor Rajaraja Chola, the single floor enclosure cloister (thiru-chuttru-maaligai) which surrounds the Rajarajaeswarem temple was caused to be built by his general (Senathipati) Sri-Krishnan Raman alias Mummudi-Chola-Brahma-Marayan.. This connects to the second Gopuram from the main entrance being called as the Rajarajan Thiruvaayil.

The Thiruchchuttru Maalikai going all round the Katthala Velimuttram measures internally 500 ft length and 250 ft width and externally 800 ft length and 400 ft width. The entire cross section of this Thirucchuttru Maalikai comprises of an long Ullaalai (Inner Corridor) of single Tier, with an integral outer Wall having a height over the Ulaalai upto 28 ft.

On the top four corners of the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai integral Wall there are four Sikarams, and inbetween these Sikarams along the top perimeter of the Wall, are the equi-spaced same size Nanthis to be seen.

Within the Ullaalai of the Thiruchchuttru Malikai there were some smaller Shrines of the Parivaara Theivangkal (accompanying Deities).

(h) Gopura Vaayilkal

There are two Thiruvaayilkal (main entrances) to this temple.
The first was known as Keralanthakan Thiruvaayil the outer ornate Gopuram of 113 ft height in three tiers. This connects on both sides to the Thiruchchuttru Maalikai Puramathil going right round the temple. The Thiruchuttru Maalikai Puramathil small eqi-spaced Nanthis all round on the Puramathi with ornate Gopurams at the four corners of the Puramathil.

The second one was known as Rajarajan Thiruvaayil the inner ornate Gopuram but shorter than the Rajaraja Thiruvaayil and of 90 ft height this connects on both sides to the Ullalai of the Thiruchuttru Maalikai going right round the temple.

(i) Velichchuttru between the Thiruchchuttru Malikai and Pura Mathil

(i) Pura Mathil


(5) The Chola Painting in the Unnalikai at ground floor level

Within the Vimanam above the Karuvarai there is an inner corridor running right round its perimeter, on the walls of which you find the Chola paintings of this period. One of these paintng shows Rajaraja Chola - 1 with Karuvur Thevar, another shows God Siva seated in Kailayamalai with Nandi and other Siva Ganas around while Apsaras are dancing in front of him, another shows Sundaramoorththy Naayanaar going forth to Kailayamalai on an elephant, while Cheraman Perumaal Naayanaar on a white horse going in front, God Siva as Aadavallaan (Nadarajah) in front of whom a valiant looking warrior, 'possibly' - the emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 prostrating to him while three queens beside him on looking with two guardians beyond them, and below them other officials and the men and women at their service.

(6) Chola Dance Sculptures in the Unnalikai at first floor level

Also in this temple in the bottom row of the interior - of the upper floor of Karuvarai, the 108 - Karnas of the Siva Tandava dance was intended to be carved out, but only left with 81 - Karnas fully sculptured while the 82nd partialy finished for some reason unknown.

(7) The Sitpis (Architects) who designed and constructed the temple

This temple was designed by a group of Silpis (Perum Thatchchar) and the chief among the Silpis who was intrumental in the construction of this great temple was Viracholan Kunjajara Mallan alias Rajaraja Perum Thatchchan with his two assistants, and the expertise of two other Silpis namely the Kunavan Mathuranthahan alias Niththavinotha Perum Thatchchan and Ilaththi Sadaiyan alias Kandaraathiththa Perum Thatchchan.

(8) The first Kudamullukku Peru Villa of Rajarajeswaram Temple
The construction of the entire Rajarajaeswarem temple was completed and Kumba-abishekam done in the year A.D.1010 mid January.

The Seppuk Kalasam laid over with gold and placed on the temple of the Sri-Rajarajaesvaramudaiyar by Pavana Pidaran the - Saiva Acharya of this temple weighing five hundred and forty-five karanju, on the occasion of the Kumbha Abishekam of this temple. Esaanasiva Panditar, the Guru of the Emperor Rajaraja Chola too made many gifts to this temple at the time of Kudamullukku Peruvilla.

The "Karuvur Puraanam" (in Tamil) gives a picturesque description of those who were present at the 'first Kudamulukku Peru Villa' of the Rajarajaeswarem temple as follows:

".....All the holy music and practices streamed in, the girls tried their dance performances, the worshippers of Sangaran (God Siva) flocked in, the great tamil poets gathered (saying) the wonder created here where else are they and came forth, preyed at his (Rajaraja Chola's) feet lovingly and rejoiced....."


This is confirmed by one of Rajaraja Chola's own inscription at Rajarajaeswaram Temple dated the 26th year & 20th day of his reign - in A.D.1010(985 + [26-1]), which states "....(at) Thanjavur in Thanjavur Kootram the 'sacred granite-stone temple' (Thiru-Kat-trali) I got it erected, the Sri Rajarajeeswaram Udaiyar.....", and at another place in the same inscription as "….in the 25th year & 275th day Udaiyaar Sri Rajarajathevar (gave) a copper pot to be kept on`thari' of the copper sthupi (Kalasam)of "Sri Vimanam" of Sri Rajarajaeswarem Udaiyaar……".

Thus it is confirmed that the "Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa" of Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil took place between A.D.1009 November and A.D.1010 March. If we take the mean of this period we could conclude that the first "Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa" (Kumba Abishekam) of Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil took place in the year A.D.1010 'accurately' and in the month of mid January 'approximately'.

(9) The Saiva Aachariyars of Rajarajaeswarem temple at the inception and subsequent periods

An Aachariyar is a highly knowlegible person in the Spiritual Disapline to establish Bakthi and preach Philosophy of devotion to God among people. An Aachariyar well versant in Saiva Spiritual Disapline was known Saiva Aachariyars.

Rajaraja appointed Pavana Pidaran as the Saiva Acharya of the temple Rajarajaesvaram from the time of the Kumba-abishekam of Sri-Rajarajesvaramudaiyar. Pavana Pidaran remained as the Saiva Acharya of this temple untill A.D.1015 during the period of Sri-Rajendra-Choladeva. He was followed by Sarvasiva Pandita as the next Saiva Acharya of this temple.

We also note the Saiva Achariyar of the Rajarajeswarem temple during the period Kulothunga Chola - 1 in the sixth year of his reign in A.D.1075 was Pancha-Achaariyar

(10) The Administrative Staff appointed to the temple

(11) The other Minor Staff appointed to the temple

(12) Discovery of Tamil Thirumuraikal and introduction of the Othuvar System at Rajarajaeswarem temple

Rajaraja Chola - 1 after the re-discovery of the Tamil Saiva 'Thirumuraikal' from the Chithambarem Temple, arranged for the first time to recite them during the times of worship at the Thanjai Rajarajaeswarem temple, and appointed fortyeight 'Pidararkal' to execute same in accompanyment with one person to beat the small drum and another person the beat the big drum continually. These Pidaarer while having their own name, each were also given a religious title ending with suffix “sivan”. These Pidaarer of Rajaraja Chola's period were known dring the subsequent periods as the Othuvars.

(13) The Settlement of 400 Dancing Girls at the temple of Rajarajaeswarem

He also settled 400 - '(Female) Temple Dancers' known as the "Thalikkooththikal" selected from various parts of his kingdom and settled them in the vicinity of Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem temple with all facilities for their residence, which was known as the "Thalichcheri".

(14) Enactment of Music, Dance and Drama at the temple

There has been a 'dramatic composition' titled "Rasarasa Naatakam" - 'possibly a part of the life story of Rajaraja Chola - 1, known to have been enacted at the Thirupanthanai Nallur - Pasupathi Eswarer temple in the year A.D.995 by Kasian Vikkramaathiththan Acchan alias Rasarasa Naataka Periyan.

There has also been a 'dramatic composition' titled "Rajarajaeswara Naatakam" - 'probably' a story relating to the the construction of Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem Temple by the emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1, which was enacted by the "Saanthik Kooththan" named Thiruvalan Thirumuthukuntran alias Vijayarajendra Achariyan and his troop at this temple, on the occasion of the big annual festival known as "Udaiyar (i.e.presiding deity) Vaikaasip Periya Thiruvilaa".

Further there has also been a 'literary composition' titled the "Rajaraja Vijayam" - 'probably' relating the glories acheived in the war expeditions by Rajaraja Chola - 1, which is known to have been read at the temple at Thirupoonthuruththi in Thanjavur, apparently on special festive days.

(15) The daily Religious Rituals and special Religious Festivals celebrated at the Rajarajaeswarem temple

At the Rajarajaeswarem temple in addition to the daily Religious Rituals there had been twelve (monthly) festivals on the natal star of Tiru-Sadaiyam of Rajaraja Chola - 1, of which this star in the month of Iyyppasi (Oct / Nov) was celebratd on a very grand scale being the birth date of the emperor.

On the day of the 'naal' (natchaththiram) of Karththikai in the month of Karththikai, the Karththikai Vilakkeedu (Theepa) Peru Vilaa was celebrated - a festival to God Siva in his Aru-Uruvam form the Lingham, which was depicted as the Lingothbavamurththy in "Tamil Saivaism".

The twelve Sankranthi too were celebrated in an auspicious manner at the Rajarajaeswarem temple. 'Sankranthi' astrologically means the day of 'sacred change' (Veedu Maattram), of Sun from one Veedu (Raasi) to the next Veedu, precisely the day of the beginning of each Tamil month. In this context, it appears the Makara Sankranthi in mid January too would have been celebrated in a grand way at this temple, being the day of the traditional Tamil festival the 'Thaippongal'.

The big annual 'Thiru Vilaa' (sacred festival - Utsavam)) of the Rajarajaeswarem temple took place in the Tamil month of Vaikaasi (May / June) for nine days, and was known as "Udaiyar (i.e.presiding deity) Vaikaasip Periya Thiruvilaa".

(16) The Revenues from other Countries allocated to the Rajarajeswarem temple maintenance

Rajaraja Chola - 1 and many officers of his own empire provided monetary funds to the temple treasurey, and lands and properties from which the revenues were allocated to the temple for its maintenance and for conducting all religious rituals. In addition he allocated revenues from the villages of other countries, that were under his empire for the temple maintenance.

The villages of these countries from where revenues were received are:
(1) Peraayouur of Oimaa Nadu, of Thondai Nadu alias Jayamkonda Chola mandalam
(2) Andakkudi of Perumbur Nadu, of Paandi(ya) Nadu alias Rajaraja Mandalam
(3) Alur of Pathi Nadu of Gangapaadi
(4) I......mmur of.....Nadu of Gangapaadi
(5) Kusavur of Parivai Nadu of Nulambapaadi alias Nigarili Cholapaadi
(6) Kudaluur of Parivai Nadu of Nulambapaadi alias Nigarili Cholapaadi
(7) Puthukkodu of Vellappa Nadu of Malai Nadu
(8)........of Maappisumbu Kottiyaaram alias Rajaraja valanadu of Elam alias Mummudi Chola mandalam
(9)....... of Maappisumbu Kottiyarem alias Rajaraja valanadu of Elam alias Mummudi Chola mandalam
(10) Nattu Vitti of Maappisumbu Kottiyaaram alias Rajaraja valanadu of Elam alias Mummudi Chola mandalam
(11) Maasaar of Kanakkan Kottiyarem alias Vikkramachola valanadu of Elam alias Mummudi Chola mandalam
(12) I...na...l of Kanakkan Kottiyarem alias Vikkramachola valanadu of Elam alias Mummudi Chola mandalam

(17) The demise of Emperor Rajaraja Chola - 1 and the Pallippadai temple erected in his memory

This great Tamil Emperor Rajaraja Cholan - 1 after a remarkable period of 29 years of rule, died in the year A.D.1014.. After his death a Pallippadai temple was erected in his memory by subsequent Chola kings.


A medieval period bronze statue of the Emperor Rajaraja Cholan - 1 is presently seen on display at the Gujarat Museum.



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