Historical Study of the period of Evolution of Tamil, Sanskrit and Hindi - Languages

Thread started by virarajendra on 10th October 2017 11:46 PM

A Brief Historical Study of the period of Evolution of Tamil, Sanskrit and Hindi - Languages of India

(1) Tamil Language

In Tamil Nadu down south of India the first known massive "Under Sea Lanslide" (Tsunami) took place in the year B.C.650 and large extent of land known as "Kumarikkandam" (known as 'Lemuria continent' to Western Scholars) with hills and rivers went under sea. It was in this lost Kumarikkandam the first capital city of the Paandiya kings named 'Koodal' also known as 'Then Mathurai' existed where the First Thamil Sangam was instituted under the patronage of the Paandiya kings. It was during the last stages of the First Thamil Sangam just before the Under Sea Landslide in B.C.650, the Tamil Sage/Poet Ahaththiyar lived in the Pothikai hills (in the present Thirunelveli Mawattam) of then Tamil Nadu.

With the begining of the era after B.C.650 the Paandiya kings establised their new (second) capital city at Kapadapuram of then Tamil Nadu along it's eastern coast, being the region on the east of the present Ramanathapuram district (presently submerged under sea). It was in this capital city Kapaadapuram the Paandiya kings established their Second Thamil Sangam, where the Tamil Poet Tholkaappiar composed his Tamil Grammetical work "Tholkaappiam" around it's early period, being after B.C.650.

The Ramaayana episode took place around B.C.550 and the Sage/Poet Vaalmiki has referred to the Pothikai hills as the abode of the Tamil Sage/Poet Agaththiyar of the period after B.C.650, and to the coastal city of Kapaadapuram of Paandiya Nadu of his period around around B.C.550 in his Sanskrit epic Raamayana. The Mahaabhaaratha episode took place around B.C.415, and the Second Thamil Sangam period poem of the Poet Maamoolanaar classified under the Tamil Poetic work named 'Puranaanooru' specifically states in his praise poem on the "Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan", that he was the "great" who provided food to the warriors at the Mahaabhaaratha War in the "present tense", which indicates the Tamil Poet Maamoolanaar of Second Thamil Sangam lived in the period around B.C.415.

There are references to Countries, Hills, and Rivers of Tamil Nadu in the original Sanskrit Raamaayana of Vaalmiki, and very many references of same and to Tamil dynasties namely Chera, Chola and Paandiya in the original Mahaabaaratha of Viyaasa confirming the antiquity of Tamil Language.

The political treatise the 'Arathasastra' composed by Kautilya (Chanakya) of the period of Chandragupta Maurya (B.C.321–298) the founder of the Maurya Empire mentions that among the Import Commodities into the Mauriyan Empire from various countires of then India, were the beautiful Pearls from the southern (Tamil) Paandiya Country further confirming the antiquity of Tamil Language.

(2) Sanskrit Language

In the year B.C.1500 the Indo-Aryans from the north-west migrated to the Sind valley region (the Punjab regions of present Pakistan and India) through Kabul valley, defeating the Inhabitants of the Mohenjodaro & Harappa civilisations of Sind valley along the river Sindu (Indus) which flourished between B.C.2500-1500, and settled along the river Saraswathi of this region running parallel to the river Sindu.

The fact the 'Rig Veda' was composed by them around B.C.1500 'from this region' is confirmed by the references to the river Sindu and many references to the river Saraswathi of this region - being the 'only two main rivers mentioned in the entire Rig Veda' (not the great rivers Gangai or Yamunai or even the Himalayan mountain range). The religious culture that was developed by the Indo-Aryans in this region after their migration was known as the "Vedic Culture". This Vedic Culture gradually spread to the other regions of North and North-East India over a period of time.

This period of Vedic Culture from B.C.1500-600 was known as the "Vedic Period" of North India in history, and the Sanskrit language that was professed during this period as "Vedic Sanskrit". The literature that developed during this time was known as the "Vedic Literature".

Around B.C.600 the great Grammerian Panini wrote the first Sanskrit Grammer. The Sanskrit language that was in use as from B.C.600 was referred to as the "Classical Sanskrit". No where in any Sanskrit Literature of the Vedic Period the Epic story of Raamaayana has been mentioned. However there are references to Vedas in the Sanskrit Raamaayana of Sage Vaalmiki. Hence it is clear the Ramaayana episode took place 'after' the period of "Vedic Sanskrit" in B.C.600 - during the period of "Classical Sanskrit".

Panini's Sanskrit Grammer was followed by Katiyaayana's commentry to this Grammer around the year B.C.350. The Katiyaayana's commentry was the earliest Sanskrit literature which has made the first reference to the Sanskrit Epic Mahaabhaaratha of Sage/Poet Viyaasa.

(3) Hindi Language

Hindi is a Language most prevalent in the present North India was a descendent of the Sanskrit which was the earliest Language of the Aryan settlers in the north-west frontiers of India from the west. Through various stages of evolution over the period of time from Classical Sanskrit to Pali-Prakrit and Apabhransha, the emergence of Hindi in its earliest form can be traced back to the 10th century A.D.

Hindi Language, was also refered to as Hindavi, Hindustani and Khari-Boli. Hindi written in Devanagari script is the National Official Language of the Republic of India, and is also the state language of the States of Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The literary history of Hindi Language can be traced back to the twelfth century and in it's modern form Hindi is around three hundred year old.

The Language of Urudu of India and Pakistan is linguistically the same language as Hindi. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit words, whereas Urdu is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic and Persian words.

An extract of the Chronology on the "Hindi:The Language of Songs " provided in the Website having the following URL (https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/hindiint.html) is also reproduced for further information and evaluation of the Readers.

".......Brief History of Hindi: Hindi started to emerge as Apabhramsha in the 7th cent. and by the 10 cent. became stable. Several dialects of Hindi have been used in literature. Braj was the popular literary dialect until it was replaced by khari boli in the 19th century.

Background: The period of Prakrits and Classical Sanskrit (dates are approximate):
750 BCE: Gradual emergence of Post-Vedic Sanskrit
500 BCE: Prakrit texts of Buddhists and Jains originate (Eastern India)
400 BCE: Panini composes his Sanskrit grammar (Western India), reflecting transition from Vedic to Paninian Sanskrit
322 BCE: Brahmi script inscriptions by Mauryas in Prakrit (Pali)
250 BCE: Classical Sanskrit emerges. [Vidhyanath Rao] 100 BCE-100 CE: Sanskrit gradually replaces Prakrit in Inscriptions (????)
320: The Gupta or Siddha-matrika script emerges.

Apabhranshas and emergence of old Hindi:
400: Apabhransha in Kalidas's Vikramorvashiyam
550: Dharasena of Valabhi's inscription mentions Apabhramsha literature
779: Regional languages mentioned by Udyotan Suri in "Kuvalayamala"
769: Siddha Sarahpad composes Dohakosh, considered the first Hindi poet
800: Bulk of the Sanskrit literature after this time is commentaries. [Vidhyanath Rao]
933: Shravakachar of Devasena, considered the first Hindi book
1100: Modern Devanagari script emerges
1145-1229: Hemachadra writes on Apabhransha grammar........"


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