Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil 3

Thread started by virarajendra on 26th May 2017 07:53 AM


Destruction of Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple invasion by Nawab of Arcot and the British in Tamil Nadu

Around A.D.1860 the British Engineer Arther Cotton who was appointed by the then British Government to look into and improve the water resources, dismantled very many Granite stone slabs from 'Main Entrance Gopuram' and the connected surrounding Walls further destroying the Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple complex, without preserving the great monument of "Tamilian Temple Architectural Monument" of Cholas, but utilised same to construct a Granite Stone Dam known as Lower Anicut across Kaveri River at the point of Kollidam in Tamil Nadu.

It seems very much greater damage to the Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple was done by the British Engineer Arther Cotton who dismantled very many granite structures of this Temple complex and reducing the Outermost Wall connected to the main Eastern Gopuram to almost half of their original heights, and have used them to build the Dams (Lower Anicut) across the Kollidam River, than the damage caused by the Muslim Invader from Delhi in the year A.D.1310. Probably young enthusiastic Archeologists and Epigraphists of the present day - if they visit these Dam Sites and inspect the Granite Stones used in construction of the Dam dismantled from sections of Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple complex Walls and Buildings, which "can be see even today".

The following are the Photographs of the Main Gopuram of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple, first being how it appeared 'prior' to the British Engineers dismantling stones and destroying the Gopuram, and the second being the view of the present day 'destroyed condition' of this Gopuram and the connected Thiruchuttru Walls, after dismantling stones from them upto half their size.


(Courtesy: Sashidharan of Facebook



Recent Damages caused to Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer Temple by inexperienced 'Contractors' having no value for Tamil - Art, Epigraphy and patriotic sense - hired by Archaeological Department in the Renovation of this temple. (as gleaned from the following Video)


Some beautiful Sculptures from the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram


Videos on Gangaikonda Choleswarer Temple








Brief History of the rule of great "Tamil Chola Emperor - Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044) who built the "Gangaikondacholeswarer" Thirukkoyil"

Rajendra Cholan - 1(A.D.1012-1044)

The able son of Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1011) Rajendra Cholan - 1 initially captured the kingdoms of the Island (Goa) Santhimativu of India, whole of Maldive Islands (Palpalanthivukal), whole of Sri Lanka (Elamadalam muluvathum)

Thereafter he concentrated on the mainland India and captured the kingdoms of Banavaasi of the present west Karnataka (Vanavasi), north Karnataka (Idaithurai Nadu) and Mannaikkadakkam of north Karnataka (Mannaikonda Cholan), the Kulpark (Kollippaakai) of west Andhra, the Chalukiyan territory of south Maharaastra Irrataipaadi (Irrataipaadikonda Cholan).

After a spell of few years in A.D.1021 he made a great expedition toward the Gangetic region and towards North-West India against the continuous Muslim invasions of north-west India by Mahumad of Gazni from Afganistan, and captured more regions of then India than that by his father which included the present north Andhra (Sakkarakottam) from where his branched off into two groups. The first group of his army moved towards the Gangatic region and captured the present region of central Orrisa (Oddavishayam), the Bangaladesh and West Bengal (Vangala desam), the north Chattisgarh (Kosalai Naadu), the north Orissa (Thandabuththi), the south Jharkhand (Thakkana Laadam), and reached the great river Ganges (Gangaikonda Cholan), crossed further beyond and captured the north Jharkhand (Uttara Laadam) along the East India

All these victories made him construct another magnificient architectural monument - also a temple dedicated to God Siva 'entirely in granite stone' going to a height of 186 ft named "Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem", at his newly built Chola capital city named the "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", and a sacred water tank too was built for this temple named "Chola Gangam" (in the present Ariyalur district), where the water from river Ganges brought in pots after his victory over Gangetic region were poured into to make it more sacred..

The second group of his army went towards the north-west of India from Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria, Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the kingdoms of the present Mathura of west Uttar Pradesh (Mathuramandalam) the north Haryana (Namanaikkonam), the east Punjab of India (Panchappalli), the north Punjab also of Pakistan (Maasunidesam) and the south Kashmir (Athinagar the Purvadesam - Purva means ancient). The great Tamil Kerala Epic - Manimekalai specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country" which encompassed the south Kashmir region.

The second expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 that went towards Mathuramandalam of north-west of India, was to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight against the continuous invasions of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar (Purvadesam of the Gandhara territory) the present Kashmir-Sind region of India and South Pakistan which was successfully achieved - with "Mahummad of Gazni" retreating back to "Gazni his capital in Afganistan".

Kudamulukku Peru Vilaa (Maha Kumbhaabishekam) at Gangaikondacholeswarer Thirukkoyil 3


"Barathanatyam" performance by a Dancer with 'Gangaikonda Choliswarer Temple" as the background (in the Tamil Film "Neengal Kettavai" released in early 1980's)




The above Image is that of Rajendra Chola - 1 receiving the blessings of God Siva with the dressing of Flower Garland on his Hair knots. The first two are the Images of the Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple

Rajendra Chola's war expedition to South-East Asian countries

Therafter he turned his attention far overseas in South-East Asia, and further undertook a big war expedition "with large fleet of ships to South & South-East Asian countries", and captured - the kingdoms of Malaysia the present Kedah and Perak states (Kadaarem) {Kadaremkonda Cholan}, the present Kelantan and Negiri Sembilan states (Valaipandur), the present Johore which included the present Singapore Island (Mayirudingam), the kingdoms of Sumatra of Indonesia the present Palembang, Lampung, states (Sri Vijaya) {Vijayamkonda Cholan}, the present Jambi, Perkanbaru states (Malaiyur), the present Banga Island in between Malaysia and Sumatra (Mevilibankam), the present region of Pane (Pannai), the present Lemuri state (Ilamuridesam), the kingdom of Pegu of south Miyanmar the former Burma (Maa-Pappaalam), the kingdoms of Thailand namely the present Langasuka state (Ilankasokam), the present Takua-Pa (Thalai-Takkolam) the present Tamalingam state (Maa-Thamalingam) and the present Nicobar & Andaman Islands (Maa-Nakkavaaram) and formed a great Chola Overseas Empire in the year A.D.1025". This is why a non-Tamil modern Historian has referred to Rajaraja Chola - 1 and his son Rajendra Chola -1 as "kings of World Stature".


Historically with the fall of the 'Sri Vijaya Empire' of 'Indonesia and Malaysia' to Cholas, the "Tamil Chola Empire" became the biggest Empire of the World of this period A.D.1025-1073, while the Chinese and the Kampuchean Empires of this same period became the 'second' and the 'third' in power.



The Cholas had good trade and political relations with the Chinese Empire of that period under the Buddhist Sung dynasty, the Sri Vijaya Empire of Indonesia under the Buddhist Chulamanivarman dynasty - which earlier ruled over the present Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, and with Kampuchea (Cambodia) under Hindu Suriyavarman dynasty. It was during the period of these two Tamil Chola Emperors, many Chola trade and political Embassies were sent to Imperial Courts - of the Sung dynasty of the Chinese empire and to the Sri Vijaya empire of Indonesia. Many Buddhist Monks from China and Sumatra (then Sri Vijaya) and also from Sri Lanka too visited Nagapattinam and Kanchipuram the two important Buddhist centres of Tamil Nadu.


During the period of Rajaraja Chola - 1 and Rajendra Chola - 1, Tamil Nadu flourished in every direction with much development in Tamil - Language, Literature, Music, Dance, Drama, Temple and Civil Architecture & Construction, Sculpture (Stone & Bronze), Painting, and other Fine Arts. It was under them the Chola empire had a well knit Chola Administrative System, and had much active Overseas Trade activities especially with the South-East Asian countries and China. The Indian Religions namely the Saivaism, Vaishnavaism, Vedism, Buddhism and Jainism too flourished under their patronage

Many Tamils of the Tamil Nadu of today, are not aware of their "Glorious History" of the past and the greatness of their Traditional Tamil Kingdoms from the time immemorial, namely the Chera (in Kerala), Chola, Paandiya - kingdoms, and the kingdoms of the Thondaimandalam, Kongu and Aye (in Kerala) regions, and of the rich "Tamil Culture and Traditions" that has developed within these regions.

So it is a prime necessity that the Tamils of Tamil Nadu be made fully aware of them.


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