A brief study on the Cholas (Cholar) of the Medieval Period

Thread started by virarajendra on 8th February 2005 10:35 PM



Author - Virarajendra

Under Revision

A brief study on the Cholas (Cholar) of the Medieval Period (A.D.848 - A.D.1279) Tamil Nadu

Towards the end of the tenth century A.D. the Cholas rose as a very powerful - "Tamil ruling dynasty of Tamil Nadu", with their capital at "Thanjavur" and later at "Gangaikonda Cholapuram". They conquered vast territories in the Indian mainland and 'near overseas' in the west and south of India, and 'far overseas' in South-East Asia - at the time of their supreme power and greatness around A.D.1025.

The first Prime Minister of India - Late Hon' Jawarhalal Nehru had clearly acknowledged the - greatness of the Medieval Cholas in the Indian History - and has stated in his book titled "Glimpses of the World History" that - "......the Chola Empire grew to power, and about the middle of the nineth century it dominated the south. It was a Sea-Power and had a big Navy, with which it swept the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.......The Chola Empire thus became very extensive the biggest since the days of the Guptas.....Apart from their success in war, the Cholas were long famous for their sea-trade......". (page 126-127)

The North Indian Historian A.L.Basham speaks of the formidable position of Cholas in the middle ages in his book titled "Wander that was India" and states "....The Chola Empire was one of the mightiest military powers to arise in South and South-East Asia in the medieval period. The Imperial Cholas were the only seafareing power to dominate the Indian Ocean, and the greater part of it's littoral before modern times. The Imperial Cholas were the only rulers in South Asia before the British who can be credited with having a navy in the modern sense of the term.....". (page 75)

Measuring their greatness achieved in all fields, a non-Tamil Historian correctly and justifiably referred to the Cholas especialy to Rajaraja Chola - 1 & Rajendra Chola - 1 in his book titled "Currents of South-East Asian History" as "kings of World stature".

Medieval Period Cholas

Note: Among the Medieval Period Chola Dynasty, there existed a Practice that a King's Son was always refered to as the "Prince" - from the time of his birth upto his death, unless he succeeded as the "next King" on the Chola throne. If the first "King" appointed his Son as the "Yuvaraja" (Heir Apparent), then from his period as "Yuvaraja", and his period as the subsequent "King" (only if he succeeded on the Chola throne), they were entitled for the royal title "Parakesari" or "Rajakesari" alternatively. (The Period of Rule of each member of the Dynasty = No of years as Yuvaraja + No of years as the King)

(1) Vijayalya Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.848-881 - He was the son of Orriyuran (as per Valenjeri Copper Plates). Note: Orriyur = Thiruorriyur = Thiruvotriyur)
Capital city - Palaiyarai and later at Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam

(2) Aathiththa Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.871-907 - Son of (1)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam

(3) Paraanthaha Cholan - 1 (Parakesari) : A.D.907-953 - Son of (2)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expedition to - Sri Lanka

(4) Rajaththiya Cholan - 1 (Prince) : A.D.936-946 - First Son of (3)
The first inscription which refers to him by his royal name Rajaththiya is of the year A.D.936, and the last inscription which refers to him by same name is of A.D.946. Prior to A.D.936 he was known as Kothandaraman. He died in A.D.946 long before he being appointed as "Yuvaraja" by Paranthaha Chola - 1 and was not bestowed with the royal title
Capital city - Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expedition to -

(5) Kandarathiththa Cholan (Rajakesari) : A.D.946-956 - Second Son of (3)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam

(6) Arinchchaya Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.956-957 - Third Son of (3)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Seaport city - Nagapattinam

(7) Paraanthaha Cholan - 2 (Sundera Cholan) (Rajakesari) : A.D.957-969 - Son of (6)
Capital city - Palaiyarai
Seaport city - Nagapattinam
Overseas War expedition to - Sri Lanka

(8) Aathiththa Cholan - 2 (Prince) : A.D.966-969 - First Son of (7)
Capital city - Palaiyarai
Seaport city - Nagapattinam
Overseas War expedition to - Sri Lanka

(9) Uththama Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.969-985 - Son of (5)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Sea city - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expedition to - Sri Lanka

(10) Rajaraja Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.985-1016 - second Son of (7)
Capital city - Thanjavur
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Mainland War Expeditions upto - Kalinga (Orrisa) in North-East and Chalukya (Mumbai) in North-West of India (Refer Essalam Copper Plates)
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka & Maldive Islands.
Over Seas Political Relations with - China and Malaysia

(11) Rajendra Cholan - 1 (Parakesari) : A.D.1016-1044 - Son of (10)
Capital city - Thanjavur from A.D.1011 to A.D.1016 as Heir-Apparent, and from A.D.1016 to A.D.1029 as Emperor, and Gangaikonda Cholapuram from A.D.1029 to A.D.1044 also as Emperor.
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Mainland War Expeditions upto - River Ganges in North-East India including present Bangaladesh, and the Lower Sind region in the south of the present Pakistan.
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka, Maldive Islands, Laccadive Islands (west of Kerala), Nicobar Islands (present Andaman & Nicobar Islands), lower Miyanmar, lower Thailand, many regions in Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra of Indonesia & Laos on behalf of the Cambodian king.
Over Seas Political Relations with - Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Sumatra of Indonesia, Cambodia & China.

https://youtu.be/wqP9nPmftVo

(11A) Rajaraja Chola - 1A (Prince) : A.D.1015-1018 - First Son of (11).
He was given the title "Chola Keralan" and was made to rule Kerala. He was recalled by Rajendra Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1018 to lead the battle against the Chalukya king Jayasimhan at......where he lost his life. (As per Indalur Copper Plates)

(12) Rajadhiraja Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1018-1054 - second Son of (11) [i](Udaiyar Aanaimel thunjinar).
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

(13) Rajendra Cholan - 2 (Parakesari) : A.D.1051-1063 - third Son of (11)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

(13A) Rajamahendra Cholan (Rajakesari) (Yuvaraja - Heir Apparent) : A.D.1059-1062 - Son of (13)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
[u]Over Seas War Expeditions

(13B) Vijayalaya Cholan - 2 (Parakesari) (Yuvaraja - Heir Apparent) : A.D.1062-1062 - Son of (13)

(Vijayalaya Cholan - 2 the younger brother of Rajamahendra Cholan, was 'possibly' appointed as the next 'Yuvaraja' in A.D.1051 by his father Rajendra Chola - 2 after the premature death of Rajamahendra Cholan 'possibly' in a war. However it 'appears' that he too for some reason or other demised in the same year A.D.1051. It was thereafter Rajendra Chola - 2 appointed his own younger brother Virarajendra as the next 'yuvaraja' in A.D.1062. Virarajendra continued as 'yuvaraja' until the death of Rajendra Chola - 2 in A.D.1063. Further Rajendra Chola - 2's meikeerthi says two of his sons were Rajamahendran (erronously stated as Rajendran) and the other was Vijayalayan.

(14) Rajakesari Virarajendra Cholan (Rajakesari) : A.D.1062-1070 - fourth Son of (11)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka. Expedition to lower Burma, Kedah region in Malaysia, som regions in Sumatra & Java of Indonesia, and the region of Taoist China near Canton lead by his nephew Kulothunga Chola - 1 (14) "during his youthfull days on behalf of his uncle (the mother's brother) Virarajendra Chola".
Over Seas Political Relations with - Malaysia, Sumatra of Indonesia.

(15) Athirajendra Cholan (Parakesari) (Yuvaraja - Heir Apparent) : A.D.1066-1070 - Son of (14)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

Athirajendra Chola ruled for 3 1/2 Years. However he also was suffering from an incurable desease and towards the end of his reign he was finding it difficult to rule the vast Chola overseas empire. The Ministers and others high officials were revolting that he be replaced with another healthy able Prince. In the wake of this revolt the Hoysala king of Karnataka who was married to Adirajendra's sister came with his forces to Gangaikonda Cholapuram in A.D.1069 to assist his brother-in-law and settled the issue and Adirajendra continued as the Emperor but met his death in the year A.D.1070.

(16) Kulothunga Cholan - 1 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1070-1120 - Son of the Sister of (11A), (12), (13) & (14)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka.
Over Seas Political Relations with - Malaysia, Sumatra & Java of Indonesia, Miyanmar, Cambodia & China.

(17) Vikkrama Cholan (Parakesari) : A.D.1118-1135 - Son of (16)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

(18) Kulothunga Cholan - 2 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1133-1150 - Son of (17)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

(19) Rajaraja Cholan - 2 (Parakesari) : A.D.1146-1163 - Son of (18)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram later at Palaiyarai renamed as Rajarajapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

(20) Rajathiraja Cholan - 2 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1163-1178 - Grand Son of (17) & a cousin brother of (19)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

(21) Kulothunga Cholan - 3 (Parakesari) : A.D.1178-1218 - Son of (20)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Sri Lanka

(22) Rajaraja Cholan - 3 (Rajakesari) : A.D.1216-1256 - Son of (21)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam

(23) Rajendra Cholan - 3 (Parakesari) : A.D.1246-1279 - Son of (22)
Capital city - Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Sea-port City - Nagapattinam
Over Seas War Expeditions to - Northern-most Sri Lanka

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WsDX...yer_detailpage

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-qAk...layer_embedded

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfIu...layer_embedded

https://youtu.be/xH-euECI8t0

https://youtu.be/Zn2zL5DsWnY

https://youtu.be/2fRx3WiPqPk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tt7b...layer_embedded Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Brahatheeswarer Temple) at Thanjavur was built by Rajakesari Rajaraja Chola - 1 (A.D.985-1014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3fb...layer_embedded Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temple) at Gangaikonda Cholapuram was built by Parakesari Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1011-1044)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vPDi...layer_embedded Rajarajaeswarem Thirukkoyil (present Airathaveswarer Temple) at Rajarajapuram (present Dharasuraam) at Kumbakonam) was built by Parakesari Rajaraja Chola - 2 (A.D.1146-1163)

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-9AyquQH2mv...paheswara2.JPG Thiribhuvaneswarem Thirukkoyil (present Kampaheswarer Temple) at Thiribuwanam in Kumbakonam) was built by Parakesari Kulothunga Chola - 3 (A.D.1178-1218)

https://youtu.be/XOC3-LAhacQ

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=586V...layer_embedded

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrHA...layer_embedded

https://youtu.be/teJoO72WA0k





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